It was easier for the Russians to accept the revolution because of the fact that it was done by the Russians, that it was a national thing, and for the small peoples it also carries fears of crying, a great nation. (Petras Cvirkas APS, XII, 175-176)
The first Soviet occupation and war years in Soviet Lithuanian literature was limited to purely propagandistic matters, therefore its scope and meaning are more than low and hardly possible to be evaluated on a literary scale. It is necessary to make an exception for one Salomėja Neriai, which, due to the circumstances and for purely personal reasons, began to write on the Lithuanian patriotic theme and created really good queues. All other invitations to the occupation, without even mentioning Peter Cvirka, fled the literature. Nobody has published a more significant work so far from the so-called “treaties-front” squadron. Causes are difficult to predict.
During the first years of the post-war years, quite a lot of efforts were made to revive the Lithuanian script. A lot of neutral writing people were attracted to this work, not even pitying them with the positions of the responsible fiction writers. But in those days there was a very lively Lithuanian partisan war. The situation was sharp, tense and fake. The occupants started the collectivization of agriculture in order to crack down on resistance, and then the partisan struggle woke up even more. Frequent mass exodus of innocent people began, which also touched writers. It was in this background that the Soviet literary literature had to develop.
The development of literature was not favorable either because several true writers and loyal pillars of the Bolshevik order left the living space during the first years of the second Russian occupation: Salome Neris (1945), L. Gira (1946) Petras Cvirka (1947) …
* This article is a report prepared for the occasion of the World Lithuanian Seimas, and then added to the chapirografted publication “Lithuania in Occupation”, issued by the Organizing Committee of that Sejm. The book has 128 p. and includes the following studies: dr. A. Trimako and V. Vaitiekūnas – “The Lithuanian Occupation Regime”, Juozas Audenas – “Sovereign Agriculture of Occupied Lithuania”. Vytautas Vaitiekūnas – “Education in Occupied Lithuania”, Jonas Aistis – “Literature of Occupied Lithuania”, A. Rimvydas – “Soviet Indoctrination in Occupied Lithuania” and dr. S. Bačkis – “The International Legal and Political Situation of the State of Lithuania”. The intro word was written by prel. Jonas Balkūnas, Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the Seimas. The widest study is about Vaitiekūnas education about half of this work. In general, the book provides a large, carefully collected megaha of the aforementioned fields. -Red
It’s too early to say anything more concrete about the activities of Soviet writers in the post-war years, because the true essence of things is not possible. The more passionate writers, when they were alive, did not announce almost anything bigger and more significant. But now, it begins to appear that some of their creative work did not abandon only their creativity in the “sharp class struggle” of the time, it seemed to be a seemingly, very sensitive, and at the same time insignificant thing. It seems that not only the union of writers with the very leader of Petru Cvirka, but even the party was lost. Only in this way could one explain the departure of the actual members of the party and candidates from literary work and the conversion of excellence to the party and society into literary studies, the exchange of genres and mutism.
Peter Cvirka himself would first have touched the partisan movement in literature. He dedicated the subject “Abduction” to this topic. It seems that the topic will touch the Circus to the very depths of his soul. He was keen to designate a large store for that thing, whose fragments are published in Volume XII. From the remaining sections, especially from the places left by the author in the manuscript, one might suppose that this could have been a really great work. It’s hard to say what pushed Cvirka to take on such a sharp and dangerous topic. The Bolshevik values, which run through one of the other places of his notebook, are not interrupted either. Certainly, other writers did not eliminate those “sharp class struggles”. The partisans touched Veronika V. Valsiūnienė, T. Tilvytis “Usnynė”, J. Baltušis “Abišalė” and elsewhere. In the post-modern times, two full-length narratives of the partisan war in Lithuania appeared: A. Baltrunas’s “Spring Dainavoj” and J. Usachyov’s “Nemunas of the Ice”.
This is exactly what the writers of the party near the post-war years have created. All in all, the impression is that these old “wolves” have gone out of the depths, but as if they were creating conditions for the elderly, and especially for the new people. I will touch upon all their so-called literary “achievements” in separate genres: prose, poetry, drama and literary studies.
The people of the communist underground of the time of independence began to struggle with the Bolshevik writers. From them, the Chekist of the first Bolshevik occupation emerges from the special situation, organizing the destruction of the Lithuanian intelligentsia and the great June deliveries Aleksandras Gudaitis-Guzevicius. He made a legend and epic in the years 1918-1919: he wrote two books of a very prolonged volume: The Rights of Calvinis Ignotas (1948-1949) and Brothers (1951 -1955). They transposed the novels into “historical facts”, attributes of time and place color. The author does not have a lot of fantasy or talent, but he struggles to defeat his work. The store, so to speak, is rather “folk” with the custody and performance. The material is so seamed that all the secrets through the seams bark. This is a “real” The story with the names of all the epipedes from Kapsukas to Plechavičius. Only the eldest hero Calvis Ignotas, the symbolic personality, is set to represent all “Lithuanian people” of Lithuania, and brother Norbertas is a symbolic worker’s representative.
The “truth of Calvinis Ignotas” was popularized in all possible ways and with all possible means. Roman was awarded the “Stalin Prize”, translated into Russian and more important languages of folk democracies, two of his plays: one for theater, the second folk self-directed scene and a film. As already mentioned, material in these great novels was not artistically treated, therefore, even the favorable Bolshevik critique openly questioned the artistic value of the work, as the author saw only two colors: black and white.
Antanas Vienuolis-žukauskas was the author of the older generation from the very beginning of the second Bolshevik occupation. He wrote two major works; “Uzdukterė” (1946) and “Puodžiunkiemis” (1952), with a special pleasure in shaking the times of independence. However, he still remains at the level of writer and literature. In addition, in the last years of his life he has written a number of memories of youth, whose literary value can not be doubted. Before the monk, everything is round, and no one, manding, does not equal him.
Of the neutral, it should be mentioned B. Sruoga’s cachet memories, published, ten years after his death; and Mikolaitis-Putin, who published the first part of the novel about the 1863 rebellion. Here it would be worth mentioning also Jiwa Simonaitytė, who published a novel from the Minor Lithuanian House, which tries to co-operate with the party and the occupants with cooking. Her novel was published in the Soviet magazine Soviet Literature, which is available in perhaps six languages.
As we have already mentioned, the writers of the Bolsheviks, like Jonas Šimkus, reverberated, and only in 1953 came a set of short stories. The same can be said about the once pro-Ufish John Marcinkiewicz and even Antanas Venclovas who moved into the ranks and impressions of travel, and only this year’s “Victory” magazine started publishing the novel “Birthday”, which can not be said about anything. Juozas Baltušis really stands out from that group. Although he lacks literary culture, the story is alive and alive. He occasionally published prose articles, but focused more on theater plays. Last year, he published a storybook book titled “Selling Summer”, to be considered a breakthrough. It is characteristic that the writers of this group avoid eavesdropping, and especially topical topics. They all dazzle the times of independence. Vytautas Sirias-Gira, who is still more secretive, is focusing on formal matters and has written a couple of good things to do with reading: the story of “people with white coats” (1949) and “people from the great ship” (1951) and the novel “Buenos Aires” (1956).
Opens and more relevant issues were touched by the new people who came to Li-Teraturon after the war on various paths: from schools and from other occupations. The newspaperwriter Jonas Dovydaitis appeared in 1948 with the novel “After the storm”, which raised the industrial workers’ lives, healing war wounds and restoring the damaged industry. The author of this novel was later processed and in 1953 published it in a new name: “Great events in New Town”. The actual themes of “socialist construction” are driven by Halina Korsakienė in the collection of short stories “In the native city” (1949) and especially in the narrative of the doctors’ household “Gyveniman išėjus” (1954). The items mentioned here do not appear to be of high artistic value, but they are very typical examples of the Bolshevik writing, depicting the mood in which people live and who are interested in touching the sharp,
There is also a new force growing up. Almost all young people come from pioneers and the ranks of the Komsomol. Partly doctrines embellished, but nevertheless young, full of enthusiasm and courage. However, the Bolshevik life and young people hack in the horns. In fact, young people are completely lost. Autonomy is very limited. All the better writers have been slandered and indexed until recently. That’s why courage in young people’s creatures is not a real courage, but a simple non-existent courage. Yes, let’s say, in the past year, one young man declared a devastated “Padaiga Mirtį”. Its contents are as follows: the people who are innocent by the Communist drunk are returning from Siberia, and he, Suzuka, is afraid of their revenge, suicides. Criticism has struck a horrible thing, but not because it is poorly written, but because it departed from the norms of socialist realism and touched the opium, though untapped topic. It is clear that criticism of the young author has perished. He will either stop writing or write in the same way as Michael Sluck, according to a party’s topic: such writing is suicidal.
Prose and whether the most difficult writing in the Bolshevik order will not be. The hardest to adapt, the hardest to fit. As a result, the prose is the most devastating.
During the war, poetry emerged in the first place. It was not due to the upward poetry of the poetry and not because of poetic talent, but due to purely foreign causes. One of the main reasons is that there will certainly be a shortage of paper. One can be convinced of the publication of publications in Lithuanian language that appeared in the hands of the hands during the war: a small volume, poorly printed, bad paper type. The second reason is that the Bolsheviks create the ideological (publicist, trendic) moment for literature, first and foremost, and form the last. This can be explained by the fact that writers who have long been quitting (for example A. Venclova, Kostas Korsakas), danced for protest and seriously competed with the chairman of the presidency Justas Paleckis, alias Justas Palmeinas. Corsack is unlikely to have done exactly, returning to literary studies in the post-war years,
From Russia, the elders brought all the poets once in the queues of the “Red Army”: Valerie Valsiūnienė, Eduardas Mieselaitė, Vladas Mosuriūnas, Vac. Reimer which, it must be acknowledged, has grown and today is already giving a tone. Among them is the most talented Eduard Mieželaitis. In this sense, Bernard Brazdzionis is very influential to this day. The others are yes and even weaker.
Mieselaitis has been famous for the poetry of a felon-type character, called “Brother Poem”, about the construction of a three-state hydroelectric power station in Dukstas. The alignment is fairly light and even smooth.
A lot of non-partisan poets with Nikolai-uch-Putin, Vytautas Siriya Gira and even Petras Vaičiūnas joined the literary activity in the first post-war years. Tilvytis not only turned up, but in 1950 he was already given the title of “folk poet”
For poetry, the Bolsheviks create somewhat different demands than prose. Poetry will have to be mastery, it must sound. It must be admitted that some commands pose: a series of rhythmic, sentence smooth. True, talents in poetry are more numerous. More frequent, more closely related; from Jovaras and Vaičiūnas to Justin Marcinkevičius, Algimantas Pabijūnas (born 1936), goes through Til-Vitis, Venclova, Valsiūnienė, Matu-zevičiai, Mieselaitė, Antanas Jonynas, Mosuriūnas, Reimeris, Algimantas Baltakis. Some of the younger ones are stronger, others are weaker, but under conditions they can grow significantly. All the trouble is this ideological uniformity. Each deviation is poured and pulled. Recently, the poet Shirvys was criticized for the pessimistic and rotten ideas that he had admired in the Moscow Literary Institute’s Luna-Charzyk’s name …
In general, poetry is the most advanced genre. It has good qualities. Particularly wiped out poem genre: already mentioned E. Mieželaitis’s “Brother Poem” and a couple of years ago Justinas Marcinkevičius’s poem “Student Life” Twentieth Spring. The latter caused many contrasts. but eventually recognized as being ideally good. It feels the influence of Kazys Binkis feljetonas.
Dramaturgy is now the most lagging behind the type of writing. In the post-war years, Balys Sruoga created two good stores: “Apiššryras dalia” and “Seaside Resort”, but these things were kept in the shade, only recently, as far as it is concerned. Maybe it’s the best thing about the scene created there, but not the theater itself. And the theater has a Bolshevik law. Not a good dramaturgy for the Bolshevik theater requires, but communist ideas are well implemented. As a result, Boris Dauguvietis broke into dramatists, writing a play “The New Rope” and the first Soviet comedy “Lame”. Jonas Marcinkevičius wrote the play: “Return” (1947) and “Homeland Calling” (1953). Better compositions are written by Juozas Baltušis: “The Sparkles” (1946) and “The Early Rust” (1953). Baltušis has a vibrant folk dialogue. “Sweaty Wisps” was built outside of Lithuania. Augustine Gricius did not abandon the theater. He had two things built up: “Eve” and “Hot Summer”. His theme is mainly about the blackening of the “bourgeois times.” This is a routine in the past of a number of people who are tied up, because the shadowing of the past is equivalent to praise and exaltation of the present, even when one half of the word is not memorized in this play. And, of course, much better when it is said by a non-communist person, it’s “more objective”. Recently, Juozas Grušas became more active in dramaturgy. He created two scene stores in post-time times; “Smoke” and the historical tragedy “Herk Mantha”.
But the real dramatist seems to be coming. This is a young comedy writer Kazys Saja (born 1932). He started his career at the Klaipeda Theater. While studying at the Klaidis-Tau Institute of Teachers, he wrote (1955) the first comedy “Launches”. After all, a whole series of his comedies came up: “It’s a good heart”, “Silva Studs” and “Seven Ogre-nos”. It seems like he does not have fantasy, and he feels the scene, he is able to create situations. If criticism does not kill – and the danger is, because it takes quite sensitive themes in their comedies – this can become a serious talent for the stage. I think one more piece of play could appear, but it’s hardly the purpose to mention them here because it’s a bunch of people.
The word about the so-called folk dance drama is also to be spoken. It is most likely that V. Miliūnas appears in it. And it should also be mentioned that several films have already been created in Lithuania: “Aušra ir Nemunas” (scenario Baltušis), “Tiltas” (Dovydaitis), “Ignotas is returning home” (according to Guzevicius’s novel) and one more short article.
There are hardly anyone talking about literary studies in post-time. Restricted to single article sets. It may also not be otherwise possible to be interpreted as referring to “from above”, understanding this “upstream” in Moscow rather than in Vilnius. These collections of articles focused on one single issue, such as “The Book of Peter Cvirka” (1949), “The Folk Theme in Lithuanian Soviet Literature” (1952), “The Issues of the Lithuanian Language and Culture in the Light of the Issues of the Stalin’s Young Language in Science” (1953) ) and other. To this end, several school essays on literary history should be added, which have also been discussed at public conferences. In this way, comparing these times with the times of Stalin’s “personality cult”, we see a significant difference, JV Stalin’s ”
The first ice was broke by Kostas Korsak, publishing a monograph on A. Vienuolis’s novel “Puodīginkiemis”, which appeared in 1953, so one must suppose that it was written or even planned for Stalin alive.
But then things began to be corrected. As early as 1954, two monographs of young literary historians appeared: L. Gineath’s studio “Kristijonas Donelaitis poem METAI” and V. Galinis “The Stories of Peter Cuvette”; In the following year, J. Lebedys “Si-manas Stanevicius”. The songs of Juks, Janonis and Biliūnas were released with a critical device. And finally, in the last year, the history of Lithuanian literature of the “feudal period” appeared with a large and beautifully prepared (truth, with completely unforgivable gaps), with the adapted broad chrestomatia. It should also be noted that these publications are equipped with arrows and other details that give them a serious scientific impression. Great progress has been made in this area, especially in the context of the horror that swept the whole country during the “cult of personality”. Literary science willingly, there is a certain dose of patriotism, because inevitably we are talking about our struggle for independence. In the past, they can distort one way or another, but they can not deny it.
These short notes, of course, do not squeeze the question and do not fully inform about the current literature in occupied Lithuania. This would require more detailed studies. It would be possible to touch upon more than ordinary personal incidents, which cause controversy and perhaps even more significant consequences. You might want to touch a special type of writing, which is called Feljeton. This is a snappy and sharp tone of short-term crimes and other things that more light sometimes brings than larger literary genres. But that would be a separate topic.
The general conclusion is this. Until now, only in poetry and perhaps in the dramatic art is a bit advanced. The most tangible achievements in literary science. The lack of literature does not depend on the writers and not on the Lithuanian writers, who may be patriotism, and not Moscow, as well.